1854

Rulers:

Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States (1853-1857)

• Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837-1901)

Events:

National Gallery of Ireland founded in Dublin.

Births:

• Rimbaud, Arthur (1854-1891)

• Wilde, Oscar (1854-1900)

Literature:

• Dickens, Charles (1812-1870): Hard Times (1854)

• Dickens, Charles (1812-1870): The Seven Poor Travellers (1854)

• Tolstoy, Leo (1828-1910): A Russian Proprietor, and Other Stories (1852-59)

• Tolstoy, Leo (1828-1910): Boyhood (1854)

Art:

• Courbet, Gustave (1819-1877): L’Atelier du peintre (1854-55)

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