1559

Rulers:

• Cosimo I de’ Medici, Duke of Florence (1537-1569)

• Elizabeth I, Queen of England and Ireland (1558-1603)

• Felipe II, King of Spain (1556-1598)

Mary I, Queen of Scotland (1542-1567)

Art:

• Bruegel the Elder, Pieter (c.1525-1569): Netherlandish Proverbs (1559)

• Bruegel the Elder, Pieter (c.1525-1569): The Fight Between Carnival and Lent (1559)